Impact of Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana Gramin on rural development
The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Gramin (PMAY-G), previously Indira Awaas Yojana, is a flagship housing scheme for rural India launched by the Modi government in 2016. PMAY-G aims to provide pucca houses with basic amenities to all homeless and households living in kutcha and dilapidated houses in rural areas by 2022.
With a massive target of constructing 2.95 crore pucca houses, PMAY-G is set to significantly improve the quality of life and socio-economic conditions of the rural poor. Let's analyse the major impacts PMAY-G is having on rural development:
Improved Housing and Living Conditions
Lack of quality housing with basic facilities like electricity, toilets, LPG etc. was a major issue plaguing rural India. By enabling the poor to construct durable, disaster-resistant houses, PMAY-G is fulfilling a basic necessity of proper shelter.
Houses under PMAY-G have a minimum carpet area of 25 sq.mt with provisions for LPG connection, electricity, toilets, drinking water etc. The scheme has so far built over 1.9 crore houses, improving living conditions of crores of beneficiaries.
Access to Basic Amenities
Together with housing, provision of basic amenities is ensuring the well-being and dignity of rural households. LPG connections are promoting cleaner cooking and reducing health risks caused by traditional cookstoves. Toilets are improving sanitation, privacy and safety, especially for women. Electricity connections are enabling access to lighting, heating, education and information.
PMAY-G provisions require the house to be owned by a female member or jointly owned by the husband and wife. This is empowering rural women and making them active partners in the household economy. About 85% of PMAY-G beneficiaries so far are women. Ownership of assets like a house also improves women's social status and decision making power.
Boost to Rural Economy
Implementation of a scheme of this scale has given a boost to the rural economy by generating increased economic activity, wages and jobs. Nearly Rs 1.3 lakh crore has been spent so far on house construction under PMAY-G. This increased flow of money has stimulated demand for construction materials like cement, iron, bricks etc., thereby benefiting related industries.
The labor-intensive approach of the scheme has created crores of employment opportunities for rural masons, carpenters and construction workers. This has raised incomes and spending capacity in rural areas.
By providing houses to the homeless poor and enabling property ownership, PMAY-G is directly alleviating poverty in rural India. A pucca house with basic facilities significantly enhances the standard of living and reduces monetary deprivation.
The asset ownership provides social and economic security as well as increases eligibility for credit and government welfare schemes. Overall, PMAY-G is leading to financial inclusion and mainstreaming of the rural poor.
Positive Environmental Impact
Promoting energy efficient housing design, smokeless chulhas, solar power and green technologies, PMAY-G is enabling sustainable rural habitats. Reduced indoor air pollution due to LPG connections and smokeless chulhas is improving respiratory health. Access to toilets and reduced open defecation are improving village hygiene and cleanliness.
The scheme guidelines also promote climate resilient construction by using disaster resistant techniques and locally suitable materials. This is making rural housing more capable of withstanding natural disasters like floods, cyclones etc.
By giving priority to marginalized sections like SCs/STs, freed bonded laborers, manual scavengers, minorities and persons with disabilities, PMAY-G is promoting social justice and inclusion.
Special assistance is being provided for hilly/difficult areas and landless beneficiaries. The unique focus on tribal welfare is bridging inequality gaps and empowering Adivasis.
Overall Development of Villages
Large scale construction activity under PMAY-G is leading to creation of village infrastructure like internal roads, drainages, community centres etc. The scheme is also enabling access to electricity, LPG, toilets and drinking water in rural India through convergence with other flagship schemes like Saubhagya, Ujjwala, Swachh Bharat Mission etc.
This integrated framework is driving overall development at the village level. Better housing is also instilling a sense of pride and dignity among rural citizens.
Innovative Construction Technologies
To speed up construction, meet targets and enhance quality, PMAY-G is promoting innovative, eco-friendly and disaster resistant construction technologies. Use of sustainable materials like fly ash bricks, rat-trap bond masonry, filler slabs etc. is being encouraged.
Cost effective construction techniques like precast concrete panels, formwork systems and cavity walls are also being adopted. This is enhancing skills and modernizing the rural construction sector.
PMAY-G is transforming rural housing and enabling access to basic amenities for crores of poor households. It is empowering women, generating rural employment, alleviating poverty, driving social inclusion and boosting village infrastructure. Despite challenges like land availability, funds allocation and coordination issues, PMAY-G has emerged as a game-changer scheme to uplift rural India. Robust implementation with community participation can enable the scheme to achieve its ambitious vision of giving 'Housing for All' and transforming rural habitat by 2022.